The Research Report on Application of Low-Carbon Technology at Home!

Low-CarbonA research on the application of low-carbon technology at homes almost covered on space heaters. As opposed to perceptions of many people, even a 100% energy efficient electric heater will not offer full efficiency as long as it is using a non-renewable electricity source. According to the report, this was pointed out factoring in the entire energy consumption of the power plant and the heater itself.

Even the geothermal electricity converts about 35% of its heat into electricity, and thus an electric heater that uses geothermal electricity will not offer 100% efficiency. In short, you can achieve full energy efficiency if the electricity source is renewable. The electrical heat is probably the most expensive and least efficient for space heating unless your electrical consumption rates are significantly subsidized.

The study found that all the energy efficient heater ratings do not ‘exist’ because the heater elements are converting electricity to heat energy. The fundamental concern starts from the energy conversion right at the source. If you are looking for the most energy-efficient electric heater, it is advisable to start seeking for one that is more ‘effective’ – not really efficient, according to the study results analysis.

How Electric heaters Work

Low-Carbon LivingAn electric heater passes current through a wire, which is electrically-resistant. Through this resistance, the electrical energy is converted into heat energy. And that is how they are said to be energy efficient. However, given that some models use fans to blow air around, the energy used for powering the fans is not actually converted into heat. According to the study, this is true unless all aspects of the law of entropy are factored in.

According to the study done for the space heaters for heating large rooms, there is more energy lost during the generation at the plant. For instance, a coal or fossil fuel powered plant, about 55% of energy is lost during the production of electricity. During the electricity transmission, a maximum of 6% of energy is also lost. Therefore, a 100% electric heater will be at most 45% efficient. The exception of the issue of 100% efficiency for electric heaters is the heat pump. Heat pumps usually provide more heat than the resistant-based electric heater, and that is why many people say they are 100% efficient.

Types of Electric Heaters

Since you have an overview of how electric heaters operate, now I will outline the types of electric heaters. So, you can continue reading so that you can understand about each of them.

Central electric heaters

These involve either the use of air-electric furnaces with room vents and ductworks or air-electric boilers with radiators installed in every room. For the air electric furnace heating system, air is heated by a heating element, then compelled through a furnace by a fan, and then pumped through various ducts that are installed throughout a house. On the other hand, forced-air boiler heating system involves heating water by a heating element, and then the hot water starts circulating with the help of an electric pump or on its own.

Baseboard electric heaters

These ones spread heat by both convection and conduction. Convection occurs when heated air expands, becomes light, rises, and draws some colder air in from underneath. The air currents draw the heat into and around the house. Conduction occurs when heat is transferred from a heating element to the surrounding air in the house.

Movable energy saving space heater

Low-Carbon Technology at HomeThese can operate by radiation or convection. The most common types are the movable convection heaters and movable radiative heaters. The radiative heaters use a very hot heating element that is enclosed in a bulb-like glass tube. A reflective metal strip at the back of the tube directs the radiative energy to the surrounding space. The convection heaters are like baseboard convection heaters, though a fan may be used to propel heated air in a specific direction in order to be distributed throughout a room.

In conclusion, the study provides broad information about resistant-based electric heaters. Typically, the resistant-based electric heaters are energy efficient electric heaters. However, different heaters distribute heat energy in different ways that can be less or more effective for the intended job. According to the research, it will be more appropriate to talk about energy effectiveness with which the heaters satisfy your heating needs rather than speaking of efficiency!

What is Reverse Osmosis

Grow Tip: Don’t Filter Your Water – The True Usage of Reverse Osmosis Systems

What is Reverse Osmosis, Anyway?

What is Reverse Osmosis

Reverse osmosis simply referred to as RO, is a process of water purification that utilizes technology almost similar to ultra-filtration. A semi-permeable membrane is used to remove larger molecules from the normal water in order to produce pure water (solvent), which can be used for drinking, domestic purposes, agriculture, and industrial purposes. However, during reverse osmosis pressure is applied against the osmotic pressure, a process that is stimulated by a thermodynamic parameter of chemical potential.

Reverse osmosis gets rid of many particles (molecules and ions) from contaminated water. These particles include microorganisms and bacteria, and therefore resulting in clean and safe water for drinking. Many portable water packages are produced through RO, as well as in the production of industrial pure water that is used in chemical applications.

During the RO process, the solute is kept on the pressurized side of the semi-permeable membrane while the solvent is forced to pass through it. The membrane is highly ‘selective’ as it allows only smaller particles or molecules of water to pass freely while the larger molecules are retained.

For the water to pass through the membrane, a pressure is applied to the concentrated solution. A pump can be used to provide the pressure so that water and other lighter molecules (usually less than 200 grams per mole) are allowed to pass through the tiny pores of the membrane. The modern RO system is normally installed using a cross-flow so that the membrane can clean itself continuously, meaning that the ‘rejected’ particles are swept away from the semi-permeable membrane.

Is RO Water Ideal for Your Garden?

RO WaterOne of the main concerns about the use of RO water in gardens is the absence of some essential minerals. However, there is a way to add minerals back into RO water so that you can use it for your plants. But, our case here is whether or not RO is good for plants. This article will explore briefly that area so that you can have a clear understanding of this issue.

For plant growers, it is important to balance the intake of nutrients by your plants so that they can thrive well. Traditional water (contaminated water) contains a high level of impurities, which makes the nutrient-balance difficult to achieve. With RO water, you can provide the plants with pure water free from contaminants at their initial growth stage. This helps you calculate the mineral balance accurately, as well as eliminating the possible reactions if you use chemically-manufactured fertilizers.

When it comes to disadvantages of RO water, one of them is that a large amount of water that goes to waste. If you want to use RO water for a large garden, perhaps you are going to spend more money on water bills. On average, 3 gallons of tap water are used to produce one single gallon of pure water. So, there is a lot of water that will go to waste if you switch from normal to RO water. Another disadvantage is the absence of salts that are wanted by the plants to grow well. Some growers usually add fertilizer salts in order to restore the suitable salt content. The recommended amount of salt is one teaspoon per gallon of reverse osmosis water.

Even though many people claim that RO water is not good for plants, I would say it is. The disadvantages can be managed so that you can only enjoy the advantages. As mentioned earlier, there are ways to add essential minerals in your RO water in order to make it nutritious for your plants.

The Actual Applications of Reverse Osmosis System

Apart from purifying water for drinking, reverse osmosis systems are largely applied in commercial and industrial settings where a large amount of pure water is required. The RO system should operate at pressures between 150 psig and 1,000 psig depending on the semi-permeable membrane used and level of water quality to be treated. Some applications may require the use of a series of membranes in order to produce a greater purity of water.

The wastewater can also be forced through other advanced membranes to maximize RO water generation without wasting a huge amount of water. However, the wastewater may be flushed if some bad odor is detected.  The most common applications of reverse osmosis include desalination of brackish water, desalination of seawater, generation of ultrapure water, and treatment of wastewater.


toilet flush

How Much Water Does a Public Toilet Use Per Flush? Improving Efficiency

toilet flushThe best answer to answer this question is straightforward; public toilets use an almost same amount of water as home toilets per flush. The only difference is the number of people who use that toilet per day. The higher the number of public toilet users, it is perceptibly expected that more water will be used. However, there is one thing that every person should know when it comes to water usage in toilets. Different types of toilets use water differently per flush. This can be illustrated appropriately by comparing the oldest, older, newer, and the newest toilet models.

Let’s compare them briefly…

water usage in toiletsToilets that were manufactured before 1980 use a large amount of water per flush, usually 5 to 7 gallons per flush. Those that were manufactured in the 1980s use about 3.5 gallons per flush. If you consider an old public toilet, definitely there is a high amount of water that goes to waste on a daily basis.

The toilets that were manufactured in the 1990s use a maximum of 1.6 gallons per flush. Some of the newer models, including which are being manufactured nowadays, use as little as 1.2 gallons per flush. The modern toilets that use the least amount of water per flush are known as water certified, but this may depend on which state or country you reside. In short, flushing toilets are highly efficient in water conservation. Interestingly, they provide a perfect flushing just as the old toilets.

How to Improve Efficiency in Public Toilets

Upgrade to Water Saving Toilets

Upgrading to modern water saving toilets is the biggest investment to carry out. You can choose to install dual-flush toilets, which are normally advocated by municipalities all over nowadays. If investing in a new dual-flush is too costly for your budget, there are dual-flush conversion kits available at retail prices – about $15 to $20 per kit. There are also toilet top sinks, which are perfect for public toilets. Once a person flushes the toilet, water is directed to a faucet for hand wash first before it drains into the toilet bowl.

Minimize Water Usage in Toilets

water usage in toilets 2This may sound impractical, but in the real sense, it is possible. A simple method is to reduce the amount of water required to fill the tank after every single flush. Those people who provide public toilet services or working in any facility with public toilets can use a Fill Cycle Diverter, which diverts some water to the tank instead of filling the toilet bowl. So, the bowl will be refilled with water quickly, which in turn saves about half a gallon per flush. The displacement devices occupy the space in the tanks, hence reducing the amount of water required to fill it. On the other hand, a tank bank is another useful tool that can minimize water usage in public toilets. It clips onto the tank’s side and displaces about 0.8 gallons in every flush.

Advocating Less Often Flushing Habit

This method is very practical when it comes to public toilets where there are urinal sections for gents. Users should only use the urinal option for short calls instead of using toilets. After all, there should be a sticker prohibiting

flushing toilets after short calls. For the ladies, as they cannot use a urinal section like gents, the toilet keepers should ensure they flush the toilet in a timely manner to ensure tissue papers do not clog the drains.

Reuse Shower Water

For those facilities that offer both shower and toilet services, it is advisable to embrace reusing shower water. When a person enters a bathroom and opens the shower valve to allow the water to heat up, a significant amount of water goes to waste. Buckets should be placed in every bathroom, and then the users are informed to collect the cold water into those buckets. As someone takes a shower, some of the splashing water will also be collected into the buckets. After the shower, the bucket containing water should be picked and emptied into a tank outside the bathroom and then it is returned in the bathroom.

Breakfast Bar Overhang

How to Design a Public Office Kitchen for a Long Term Use? A Case Study

Public Office KitchenIf you are running an organization or a business where a public kitchen is a necessity, a professional interior design of the kitchen can do the trick. This is the place where food for your guests will be prepared and served. Obviously, a highly qualified chef is required to maintain hygiene in the kitchen. But a good kitchen should be practical, meaning that both aesthetic and function should be put into consideration during the designing process.

So, the following is a case study on the practical design aspects that should be kept in mind during the designing process.

  • Stainless Steel Sinks

Stainless steel sinks are commonly used in industrial, chemical, and consumer applications. They are essentially comprised of low carbon steel that contains a small ingredient of chromium, which gives the steel its unique corrosion resistance, stainless, and durability properties. The increased corrosion resistance properties are enhanced by the availability of chromium together with other elements such as nitrogen, nickel, and molybdenum. Nickel, in particular, gives the steel its bright appearance. With a good quality stainless steel sink in the office kitchen, it will last long before considering a replacement.

  • Breakfast Bar Overhang

Breakfast Bar OverhangIt is important to include bar stools in the kitchen island as they are perfect for separating the other office spaces from the kitchen. Since it is a public kitchen, there is no need for privacy as there is much movement in and out of the kitchen. The breakfast bar is essential for your visitors to sit and have a cup of tea or a glass of wine as they wait for you. It is also wiser to add an overhang on the island to allow some legroom for guests sitting on the bar stools. You can allow a 30 to 50 cm overhang on one side of the island to ensure your guests sit comfortably.

  • Dishwasher Placement and Accessibility

Placing dishwater within arm’s reach of the sink is important because you will prevent unnecessary dripping of food, dirty water, or cooking oil on the floor. Once the utensils are rinsed, they can be easily placed directly in the dishwasher. You will have also minimized the task of mopping the kitchen too often. Your public office kitchen is likely to receive many visitors on a daily basis, and therefore you would not want your guests to step on dirty water on the floor. Additionally, placing a dishwasher near the sink helps to connect the dishwasher plumbing to the taps and drains.

  • Trash Bin Location

This may depend on the layout of the kitchen, but most of the contemporary kitchens are designed appropriately to fit all necessities. A bin is used for throwing trash and solid food scraps. However, you may also want to throw some trash from other rooms. This implies that the bin should be placed somewhere everyone can access it easily. As a suggestion, place it at the end of an island or bench near the kitchen entrance. This allows you to throw some trash as you pass by rather than walking into the kitchen. If you have a compost bin, it can be placed anywhere close to the food preparation area or near the entrance. Basically, you want to make the bin easily accessible by all people working from your office.

  • Cupboard Socket Installation

Nowadays, modern kitchens have cupboards where you can put kettles and toasters. Days are gone when people used to place appliances on the worktops. Therefore, your kitchen interior designer should consider socket installation inside the cupboards. To this end, your chef(s) will be plugging in the appliances easily whenever needed. It is also advisable to install more double-sockets since you may have several appliances. Don’t forget your office kitchen will also need additional appliances like the food processor and coffee machine.

  • Adequate Lighting

Adequate LightingLast but not least, you need to install adequate lighting in the kitchen. Remember this is a public kitchen and some items might be scattered because more than one person operates from there. Some items such as sharp knives and hot ovens can cause accidents, and therefore proper lighting is required. You can choose to have a combination of under-cabinet lights, ceiling lights, and pendant lights to ensure all dark corners are well illuminated.


benefits of high pressure showerhead

Is it Worth Paying for a High-Pressure Showerhead to Increase Water Pressure?

High-Pressure ShowerheadsIf you just bought a new home, congratulations for that significant investment! In addition to those already living in contemporary homes, you deserve a luxurious living experience in all aspects. To be sincere, water is one of the major things that make a house worth living, excluding other factors such as location and interior spaces.

When you notice a low water pressure in the entire house, it can be due to municipal water supply system or plumbing issues in your house. You can call a local plumber to assess the plumbing system and fix blockages or replace corroded pipes if problem is within your house. It could also be the main control valve that needs to be twisted all the way, and this can be done even without assistance from an expert.

Sometimes, bathroom plumbing can be the cause of low water pressure in your shower. One of the causes could be corroded pipes or a clogged showerhead. This is a DIY task that will take a few minutes to finish. However, it is advisable to check a few guides on how to clean a clogged showerhead.

That said, it is important to understand that there are different types of showerheads, basically categorized into high-pressure and low-pressure showerheads. No matter how much money you invest in a designer showerhead but without a perfect shower pressure, your shower experience will just be mind-numbing. A strong shower is essential in the morning in order to feel rejuvenated as you start the day. Now, you need to invest in an excellent high-pressure showerhead.

High-Pressure ShowerheadAs this website provides accurate information, it is important for homeowners to know that high-pressure showerheads are designed to offer a higher water pressure whereas maintaining a steady water flow. Some newest models have adjustable spray setting while others have combined spray setting and pressure chambers that provide an ideal shower pressure. The combination forces water out with an elevated pressure for a better shower experience. Therefore, let’s look at the benefits of high-pressure shower.

Benefits of High-Pressure Showerheads

Offer a better shower

FinestShower states that if you have high-pressure showerhead in your bathroom, definitely you will enjoy a good time in the room. No frustrating issues of low water pressure that won’t leave your skin sparkling clean. After a long working day, you want to have a good shower within the shortest time possible. Believe it, a high-pressure showerhead will guarantee you that!

Less time consuming

The high-pressure showerheads are fast, especially when you want to take a quick shower before going to bed. There is no need to spend almost an hour in the bathroom trying to wash off soap on your body. Getting a quick shower is one the most obvious advantage of high-pressure showerheads.

Conserves water

When water is flowing at a high pressure, it is less wasted. So, they are environmentally friendly and eco-friendly because you will also save a few bucks on your utility bills. Low-pressure showerheads tend to pour little water but for a longer time, meaning more gallons are going to be wasted on daily basis. Therefore, reduce your utility bills and save that money for other expenditure.

Provides a cleaner feeling

benefits of high pressure showerheadIf you have been using a low-pressure showerhead, perhaps you have walked out of the bathroom with some shampoo in your hair. This is possible, especially when you want to take a quick shower and rush for a meeting. With a high-pressure showerhead, it guarantees you a thorough quick rinsing. It is worth noting that shampoo buildup in the hair can damage it over time!

Prevent illness

This is true because high-pressure showerheads do not suffer from clogs often like their low-pressure counterparts. That means bacteria and other disease-causing microorganisms can breed in clogged low-pressure showerheads. High-pressure showerheads wash off any bacteria, and therefore you will have no fear of contracting diseases. There are also new designs with silicon rubberized nozzles for self-cleansing, as well as resisting calcium buildup and other deposits caused by hard water.

Provides some therapeutic effect

Last but not least, a high-pressure shower has been found to offer some soothing and relaxation to exhausted muscles. According to various massage therapists, having a high-pressure shower is another version of massage that can help reduce muscle cramps and pain. Don’t forget that massage is one of the best methods to improve moods and reduce mental stress after a tiring day.